Tajikistan county report
Unofficial translation from the Russian
Information about the activities of the Research Institute of Biotechnology by the Tajik Agrarian University. named after Shirinsho Shokhtemur in the field of biotechnology
ANNEX_VIII, Tajikistan country report on ECO-ABN (english)
Goals and objectives of scientific projects
The goal and task of researches at the Research Institute of Biotechnology at TAU is to obtain and to study new promising varieties and lines of potatoes using combined methods of biotechnological science and traditional breeding methods, to restore new obtained potato lines and highly productive varieties used in potato growing using biotechnological methods and to install them into production.
Over the past 12 years, the Institute has been carrying out breeding work using cell engineering methods on meristem and callus tissues, as well as with botanical seeds of plants of various potato varieties in vitro. Scientific research is also being conducted on the restoration of used and breeding potato varieties using two biotechnological methods: health improvement apical meristem and the introduction of botanical seeds of potato varieties into in vitro culture.
1. Obtaining a certain amount of diversity of breeding lines using biotechnological methods of cell engineering - 1 project (2011-2015)
2. Identification of new productive lines with distinctive morphophysiological characteristics - 2nd project (2016-2020)
3. Identification of new potato varieties adapted to the conditions of the potato growing zones of Sogda and Rasht (2021-2022)
Scientific research results
During 2011-2015, a wide variety of new breeding lines of various potato varieties were obtained using cell engineering methods on meristem and callus tissues, on test tube plants from botanical seeds using biotechnological methods in in vitro conditions. The studies used seed material in the form of microtubers from more than 200 types of samples of the studied potato varieties and identified more than 77 samples with distinctive morphophysiological characteristics. The commission for variety testing with scientists from TSKHAN received 4 certificates of new potato varieties obtained using biotechnological methods: Ovchi, Karimi, Shukrona, Nuri
During 2016 - 2022 The following studies were carried out:
1. Traditional selection of new promising potato lines with distinctive morphophysiological characteristics in the growing regions which are under study.
2. Survey of the conservation of morphophysiological characteristics of the studied selection lines. The results are reflected in photoherbariums, articles, breeder certificates and scientific annual and five-year reports. 4 breeder certificates were received for the varieties Bakhromi, Ganchi, Biotech Somon and Biotech Shoira, obtained using the biotechnological method.
Based on the research results, the following conclusions were drawn:
-As a result of research 2016-2020. From more than 200 potato lines obtained by combined methods of biotechnological and traditional breeding, more than 77 potato lines with distinctive and stable morphophysiological characteristics were identified. Among them, the varieties Ganchi and Bakhromi, obtained strictly according to the above methods, were zoned and recognized as highly productive varieties of Tajik selection (breeder certificates for 2017 and 2020)
The research carried out made it possible to obtain new potato varieties for cultivation in the mountain and foothill potato growing zones.
-As a result of the research, it was revealed that the restoration of cultivated potato varieties using biotechnological methods is possible not only by improving the apical meristem, but also by introducing botanical seeds of potato varieties into in vitro culture in an even shorter time. When using botanical seeds, preservation of the morphophysiological characteristics inherent in the restored variety is observed for 3-4 generations, which is sufficient for growing ware potatoes in potato farms.
Results of scientific research of the project 2021-2025
During 2021-2023 According to the Alan scientific research of the latest project, the following studies were carried out:
1. 2021 - 2022 Improvement and restoration of promising studied potato varieties by two methods in vitro and in greenhouses of farms with 4-6 studied varieties each
2. 2021 - 2024 Study of the dependence of the agricultural technics of selected new breeding varieties of potatoes adapted to the conditions of the studied regions of cultivation (resistance to diseases and pests, productivity on the weight and size of tubers, on the scheme and timing of planting, etc.)
3. The Biotech-Somon variety will be submitted to the state commission for variety testing in 2021, and Biotech Shoira in 2022, and TS – 59/1/2 –red and Condor -2/2-yellow lines are being prepared.
4. The genetic pool of new potato varieties of Tajik selection has been replenished with new varieties adapted to the conditions of the Soghd region and the Rasht Valley. The collection of botanical seeds of new varieties and lines of potatoes obtained using innovative methods has reached 32 items.
As a result of research 2018-2023. A lot of work has been done on the selection and seed production of new potato varieties adapted for cultivation in the climatic conditions of the mountain and foothill potato growing zones of Tajikistan. In recent years, varieties obtained by combined methods of biotechnological and traditional selection have found wide use in potato growing in Tajikistan. According to information from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Tajikistan, in 2020 y. 112752 tons of seeds of various potato varieties were prepared for spring sowing of potatoes. Including 18,735 tons of seeds - that is, 16.6% - were prepared from varieties obtained by breeders of the TAU Institute of Biotechnology and the TASKhN Institute of Horticulture, namely the varieties Nurinisso (Nuri), Shuron, Ovchi, Ganchi
Also varieties improved by biotechnology methods during 2005-2020 retain their productivity when grown and are in demand in the production of varieties Aladdin, Picasso, Cardinal, Shukrona, Ovchi, Zarina, Tojikiston, Romance, Kondor, Red Scarlett, etc.
The research being carried out makes it possible to increase and preserve the gene pool of new potato varieties of Tajik selection, and to adapt them to the mountain-climatic conditions of the potato-growing zones of Tajikistan. Restoration of cultivated potato varieties using two biotechnological methods will allow maintaining potato growing in the Republic at the proper level.
The production of healthy seed material will make it possible to obtain high yields of food potatoes not only to supply the population of the Republic, but also to export high-quality potatoes abroad.
Research Institute of Biotechnology Ms. M.Anvarova